phical limitations they may put into effect on the surveys and the vast resources needed if such surveys need to be done nationally or internationally. The cost of training interviewers in questioning methods, traveling cost, and interpretation of response is also high. In addition, respondents might feel apprehensive about the ambiguity of their responses when they interact face-to-face interviews. In long interviews, either tiredness or edginess can affect the quality of responses as the interview progresses. Interviewers must be willing to face potentially unlikable and risky situations alone, be able to come up to strangers and need to have the personal skills to conduct an interview. Face-to-face interview can be negatively affected by the noticeable characteristics (gender, race, class) of an interviewer. For example, there might be different responses on questions such as abortion and attitudes to sexual mores if there is gender difference.
However, the advantage of face-to-face interview is that the interviewer has got the flexibility of adjusting questions as per the situation, clarify doubts, if any, and ensure that the responses are properly understood by repeating the questions. Moreover, the interviewer can also use non-verbal cues from the respondent. Any embarrassment or stress experienced by the respondent can be felt through frowns, and other body language, unconsciously exhibited by any person.
Telephone interviews are interviews that are held over the phone. Telephone interviews involve making telephone contact with selected sample members and asking the questions over the phone. Telephone interview methods allow skilled interviewers to build rapport yet maintain considerable respondent anonymity.
The main disadvantage of telephone interview is that the respondent could unilaterally terminate the interview without warning or explanation by hanging up the phone. It requires skilled professionals who could interact with the respondent in a