The other exposures of interest include use of nitrous oxide, the utilization of slightly hypoxic mixtures during anesthesia, and postoperative opioid administration.
The effectiveness of dexamethasone as antiemetic was compared with the two serotonin subtype 3 antagonists ondansetron and granisetron in 80 patients divided into four groups undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Group 1, consisting of control patients, received 0.9% NaCl; group 2 patients received ondansetron 4 mg i.v.; group 3 patients received granisetron 3 mg i.v.; and group 4 patients received dexamethasone 8 mg i.v., all before the induction of anesthesia. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed during the first 24 h after the procedure.
Inclusion Criteria: A total of 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical class I–II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. The age range was from 21 to 75 years (mean: 51.5 years). Each patient gave his or her written consent to participate in the study. The study was approved by the Medical University ethics committee.
The exclusion criteria: The patients’ exclusion criteria were as follows: American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical class III–IV; age over 75 years; body mass index above 30; pregnancy; smoking; signs of gastrointestinal, endocrine, renal, hepatic or immunological disease; use of opioids or tranquillizers less than 1 week before the operation; treatment with steroids; history of alcohol or drug abuse; history of motion sickness; preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder empyema and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones; and conversion to open cholecystectomy.
The incidence of nausea and vomiting was recorded during three assessment periods, 0–6 h, 6–12 h, and 12–24 h, by nursing staff without knowledge of which antiemetic the patients had received. Both nausea and vomiting were