Mayer (2003) argues that there is a shortage of reflection on the student’s ideas in the conventional educational system whereby students went to the school open minded to receive information and theories regarding science from text books and teachers through instructions in class and guided experiments. According to Nelson (1998), effective learning in science requires substantial involvement of students in analyzing facts and conducting experiments like the early scientists who discovered how nature worked through continuous exploration and documenting the inventions in science.
Learning science requires more than memorization of theories and exam oriented learning. This is because as Schmidt et al. (1997) observes, memorizing facts is different from understanding them. A student who understands scientific theories may be capable of applying them compared to a student who memorizes the theories to pass exams. Once the exam is over, the student who memorizes tends to forget the scientific principles and they may never be helpful in future. Students need to be encouraged to work together and perform practices whereby they share thoughts regarding solving problems. They learn to use modern technology in education, taking time to understand the relationship between the results of the experiments conducted, the information learnt from text books as well as in class. This practice is core to intellectual development (Nelson 1998).
Learning in science is mainly effective when students are able to use their senses to get the meaning of concepts (Black & William 1998). For example, understanding that the earth is spherical in shape requires students who are learning for the first time to effectively visualize through viewing something similar to the earth. The sense of seeing helps in understanding that the earth is round by relating the globular equipment with it. Touching, listening to particular sounds and smelling are major senses