Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Germany also participated but were some of the minor players when compared with the other countries mentioned. By the end of the nineteenth century almost all the entire continent was under political control of at least one European power. European expansion into Africa was encouraged mostly by the industrialization era in Europe as those countries sought raw materials for new and growing markets. Many historians, however, felt that there were many and varied reasons. “There was the lure of adventure, the search for personal freedom, the sense of mission. There was greed and vanity and lust for power.” 1
The decolonization of Africa, for the most part, took place towards the middle of the twentieth century. Many of the problems faced by Africa today can be attributed to the impact of colonization. There has also been positive impacts, however, that have helped to move the continent forward since the pre-colonial era.
One of the major long term consequences of colonizing Africa is the political culture of the different countries. Prior to the colonial era most of Africa could be described as a stateless society. Many of the borders of these modern states were created according to the whims and fancies of the different colonial leaders. “Namibia’s odd shape was created by the strategic requirements of a German foreign minister”2 . The current political rulers of the varied African countries retained the boundaries set by the colonial rulers with the exception of modern day Tanzania and Eritrea. . This in some way helped in the social identity of the different nations. Hodder stated that ‘once the colonial boundaries of Africa have been drawn up they acquired a permanence, which assisted by unified administration within them, helped to engender modern African unity’3 . In the establishment of the Organization of African States in 1963, on of the agreement made by the members was