These sub-systems are an interrelated set of activities which are executed to meet the goals of the organisation (Luthans 1985, p. 22). Hicks and Gullet (1975 p. 14) defines an organisation as a specific design of structure, people, duties and procedures. Structure explains the form of departments, the pecking order and committees. The structure influences the organisations competence and effectiveness. People refer to the abilities, attitudes and social relations of the employees of the organisation. Duties or tasks refer to the goals of the employees and the organisation. Procedures refer to the methodical approach used to perform tasks. Organisational structure thus refers to the institutional arrangements and mechanisms for mobilizing resources i.e. physical, financial, information and human resources at all levels of the organization. Organisation has been defined differently by numerous people. However, all definitions generally contain these five common features:
Change can be said to be situations and events that occur in an organisation that have an effect in the way it operates (Huse and Bowditch 1973, p. 57). The effects can be positive or negative. There is need for organisations to embrace changes so that they can stay ahead of their competition. Several factors may necessitate change but this will be discussed later on in the paper.
The phrase “organisational change” is about a major change in the organisation which might include issues like reorganization or adding up a new product or service (Gortner, Mahler and Nicholson 1987, p. 63). This is in contrast to smaller changes such as implementing a new computer procedure. Organisational change can look like such a vague occurrence but it is helpful especially if you can think of change in terms of a variety of dimensions.
Organisations that offer services, either large or small scale, often view taking risks as the core of their business. True to