The report conducted by The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research reveals that in 1998 the national graduation rate was only 56% for African-American students and 54% for Latino students, in comparison with 78% for white students. Due to extremely low graduation rates for Latino and African-American students in several states( Georgia-31%, Alabama-33% of Latino students; Wisconsin – 40%, Minnesota-43% of African American students), it was suggested that the new educational policies increased inequality. In some states, like Minnesota, a disparity between the graduation rates for African-Americans and white students reached 50% (Greene, 2001). Thus, the conclusion is that educational opportunities cannot be created only with standards and tests; it is necessary to provide appropriate learning resources and opportunities to all students (Darling-Hammond, 2005). Lack of proper educational materials and qualified teachers, due to a shortage of funds, is a common problem in many urban and rural minority schools, which results in poor academic performance. Consequently, school failure reduces students’ access to future education and employment, thus leading to crime and welfare dependency. Thus, it is necessary to implement adequate policies for equality, involving equalization of financial resources, changes in curriculum and teaching methods, and, finally, access to highly qualifies teachers for all students (Darling-Hammond,2005).
As funds for education in the United States are raised and spent on an inter-state basis, through a system of local property taxes and state grants-in-aid, there are great disparities in resources for education between poor and wealthy districts. There are two factors that determine the amount of money spent per pupil: the general education tax capacity rate, which is determined by state law, and the property wealth of the district (Minnesota House Fiscal Analysis Department on Government Finance Issues, 1997). Due to