Existentialism is a philosophical school that argues life as no meaning and that, particularly; human existence is limited and contingent, ungrounded and thrown in the world without justification. (Tomer, Eliason, and Wong 2007, pp. 8) This thought may appear to be pessimistic…
(Herron 2004, p. 54) According to Heidegger and Sartre, two of the foremost and ardent proponent of Existentialism, “existence” does not have any fixed definition. (Earnshaw 2007, pp. 2)
No single philosopher or theorists could claim credit for introducing existentialism. This is because the roots of the philosophical thought are diverse. According to Rita Sommers-Flanagan (2004), most text points to nineteenth-century philosophers Soren Kiergaard and Frederick Nietzsche as the major players in the formulation of existentialism. (pp. 139) Nonetheless, there are other philosophers who have contributed to the philosophical thought, particularly Pascal, Sartre, Heidegger, Husserl, among others. This dynamic element of the theory made “Existentialism” a flexible and wider concept. (Earnshaw 2007 pp. 1-3 )
Most historians credit Rollo May as the one who formally introduced and integrated existential thought into counseling and psychotherapy. (Sommers-Flanagan, pp. 139) The main claim of existential counseling to the basic philosophy of Existentialism lies behind the idea that an individual is considered to be the author of his or her own life. This demonstrates how existentialism could parallel Christian thought. For example, existentialism can become for Christians a way for determining truth through commitment. According to Claerbaut (2004), if at conversion, and therefore at the time of commitment, “one becomes a new person in Christ – seeing truth with spiritually opened eyes – then indeed the Christian life affirms an existentialist experience. (pp. 202)
Existential Therapy is different from other practiced psychotherapy in that it does not follow any specific framework and techniques unlike others. It rejects the idea of human nature being restricted by various theories and propagates the idea of freedom in human nature. ...
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Man cannot determine his own existence except if that man is a secular humanist. There is no way one can be both atheist and theist. This is unprincipled marriage of convenience that only calls secularism. Therefore, existentialism is a quasi-secular humanist philosophy.
In their views, Buber, Levinas, Wiesel and Frankl have expressed different views concerning the relations between God and a man under oppressive conditions of Holocaust. Buber claimed that God did not reveal his presence in the XX century. Otherwise occurrence of Auschwitz would hardly happen.
That is why Miguel de Unamuno in his controversial philosophical work, ‘Tragic Sense of Life’ contradicts the earlier works of Karl Mark and Sigmund Freud (Unamuno 157). He takes both existentialistic and theistic perspectives to explain man’s attachment to nature without faith and reason.
In other words, Kieji Nishitani condemns the obsession with worldly things because they lead people to a sense of nihility (Nishitani 338). This is a state that confuses the meaning of life and hinders people from attaining the sense of the horizon. According to Kieji Nishitani, there is a lot of confusion that is characterized with religion especially upon ignorant people.
At the core of existentialism is the proposition that “existence precedes essence”. This means that the most important consideration for the individual is the fact that he or she is an individual- an independently acting and responsible conscious being- “existence”, rather than what labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individual fits-“essence”.
According to Heidegger and Sartre, two of the foremost and ardent proponent of Existentialism, “existence” does not have any fixed definition. Thus, this dynamic element of the theory made “Existentialism” a flexible and wider concept.
There was only duration, only existence, and it was to be endured, not celebrated. However, at its core this was an empty philosophy and one with no real substance. Two of the great existentialist thinkers, Sartre and Camus, clearly illustrate this
he meaning of life and existence; and, there is a need for “authenticity” or “being true to one’s own personality, spirit and character” (Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, “Authenticity”) in order to understand human existence. Furthermore, it rests on the impression
This would be influenced by the fact that the human society has already trained the human beings that there is a place called hell where subsequent punishment would be done. For the purpose of this paper, I
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