Unlike Erikson, Freud’s theories were based upon studies of neurotic patients; Erikson’s theories were based upon studies of normal childhood. Keoke and Porterfield (2001) explain the beginning of Erikson’s observation of normal childhood development as follows: in 1902, Erickson was born in Germany to a well-off family who immigrated to Germany from Denmark; at the age of 25 years, Erickson moved to Vienna, Austria where he established a school and was fortunate to become one of Sigmund Freud’s students and colleagues. During the Hitler reign of terror, Erikson migrated to the United States where he worked with prominent anthropologists and studied two American Indian tribes called the Sioux and Yukon. Erickson’s anthropology study turned into the first empirical study on normal childhood development. The focus of the study was the early childhood development of the Sioux and Yukon children in their home and school environment compared to White American children. After a longitudinal scientific investigation focused upon the childhood development of the Sioux, Yukon, and White American cultures, including the American Welfare system, Erikson knew that it was time to establish his own theory of development which was in direct conflict to his teacher and colleague namely Freud (Keoke & Porterfield, 2001).
Santrock (1997) describes Erikson’s famous eight developmental stages as follows: (a) Trust vs. Mistrust is focused upon the fetal years through the first year and ideally the child learns to get physical and emotional needs fulfilled of which must be achieved before the child will learn how to trust; (b) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt initiate around the second year of the child’s life in which independence and the assertion of the child’s will is observed through the behavior of doing things and exploring. Erikson observed that if
Researchers of the field study normal growth, change, self-actualization, and also life-stage related problems. The developmental theory was revolutionized in…
Managerial economics is based on the assumption that formulation of logical managerial decision is possible. Managers are enabled to make rational decisions, their decisions become imperative component of organization success. Concepts of the game theory and behavioral theory, that facilitate process of decision-making is considered in the paper.
Erik H. Erikson is a renowned child psychoanalyst whose researches and psychoanalytic theory primarily focused on the effects of culture and society on the psychological development of individuals. Erik Erikson spent a large part of his time studying the cultural lives of the Yurok people of northern California and the Sioux of South Dakota and then used the knowledge acquired regarding the social, cultural and environmental influences to further improve his psychoanalytic theory and it will be discussed in tha paper.
The conclusion states that Bronfenbrenner’s ecological paradigm integrates all levels of influence on child development to evaluate the root and also the key to quite a few of the mounting emotional and behavioral issues encountered nowadays. The most important and valuable feature of this paradigm is that concerned individuals can work together to nurture and raise children.
These theories also guide the teachers in terms of learning processes and teaching standards for their students – largely based on the scales and the levels of learning and development seen with each student. This paper shall summarize the social learning theory.
Experts claim it is possible to predict the type of behavior that might manifest itself in an individual simply based on appearance or outward actions and facial expressions. Profiles can be useful to predict whether or someone will be good at a given job, or to match potential mates together.
The researcher of the paper claims that because these two techniques are so starkly different, they often miss insights that the other method may provide. For instance, while CBT is highly structured, psychoanalysis relies less on structure than on the free associations of the patient and their interpretations.
This theorist identified the first influencer as the microsystem, which is directly related to the immediate environment in which a child or adolescent lives. This typically involves the parents, immediate caregivers, or other social
Education philosophers however contend that integrating rational and empirical experiences for a more holistic educational outcome will be much anticipated.
Behavioral analysis are significant to (1) understand a troubled or
Her elder brother, who is aged 18, was studying in America at the time. The immediate-elder sister is 15 years old and is in high school. During previous therapy sessions, it had been determined that the parents of Halima were