Dindwiddie et al (2000) also suggest that 15- 20 % of women may have experienced some form of CSA. However these figures may not be the whole picture as many children do not report sexual abuse as they are too afraid to or are threatened by the abuser to keep quiet. The list of short-term and long-term effects of this abuse includes psychological, social, behavioral and health-related effects. According to Dinwiddie et al (2000) this list includes depressed feelings, and feelings of anxiety, guilt and anger. In addition there is an elevated rate of mood and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, borderline personality disorder. Low self-esteem and feelings of worthlessness are common. Two of the major consequences are the difficulty to develop trust in anyone and inability to make sound decisions about sexual behavior. Generally the family environment in which children who are sexually abused grow up is an adverse one. Therefore there is co-occurring emotional or physical abuse or neglect along with the sexual abuse. The environmental factors associated with increased risk of CSA are listed by Dinwiddie et al (2002) as significant family conflict or violence, extended institutional placement, and presence of a step father. Martsolf and Draucker (2008) include several additional family problems that occur in such homes such as parents having alcohol and/or substance abuse problems, mental illness, economic instability, domestic violence and high levels of conflict in the homes.
The research is not completely definite about the extent of the effect of family dysfunction on the outcomes of childhood sexual abuse, but it is clear that the sexual abuse is associated with many negative effects.
The study of the increased risk for serious negative outcomes for individuals with a history of CSA has been complicated by at least two methodological issues, according to Nelson et al (2002). These two issues are the selection of
The American Medical Association defines CSA as “the engagement of a child in sexual activities to which the child is developmentally unprepared and cannot give consent”…
A history of child abuse has been identified as a risk factor for a number of psychological and mental health problems in an adult’s life. Psychological problems of adults that are associated with child emotional, physical, and sexual abuse include personality disorders, depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) indications (Burns, Jackson, and Harding 801).
Study reflected that not all victimizers are adults; some of them are teens. Psychologists explained that some of these perpetrators share common characters: they were abused too; under the influence of drug abuse; find dissatisfaction in sexual relationships; has unstable emotion; or is suffering psychological problems.
There are many different types of sexual abuse, and just as many consequences to initiating sexual abuse and to being subjected to such inhumane treatment. The primary factor of what constitutes certain sexual activities as sexual abuse is force. When a person is forced to see or do something of a sexual nature that they had no say in, sexual abuse was committed.
This research paper attempts to identify the type and forms of child sexual abuse cases in the study areas and then determine the causes of child sexual abuse in schools in UK. It will also endeavour to find out how child sexual abuse cases are handled in the study areas and generate suggestions on how effectively the problem of child sexual abuse in school can be addressed. The first chapter of this paper introduces the research problem while the second chapter presents a review of the related literature followed by the methodology chapter.
It can either be intra-familial or extra-familial child sexual abuse. For intra-familial abuse the abuser and the victim belong to the same family and for extra-familial, the abuser and the victim are from different families. The intra-familial sexual abuse can be regarded as a form of incest.
The collected data from these groups were able to establish the steady rise in the number of abuse cases in families, as well as the socio-demographic characteristics of the families where abuse is most-likely to happen.
lling their fundamental needs and desires, and escape from providing them with food, shelter and emotional support are also various forms of child abuse. Somehow, physical torture, mental tormenting and sexual attacks on them view as the worst forms of child abuse, because of
America has the most horrible child abuse record in the industrialized world. Consequently, Texas has one of the most horrible child abuse records in the country according to the BBC. Child abuse entails imposing or failure of rationally avoiding others from