In a field outside the Russian city Ekaterinaberg, gateway to the Ural Mountains, during the summer months of 2007, a number of forensic biologists and investigators worked at the site of two digs. They were graves, containing human remains from a famous family whose fate is…
ethods used to determine the identity of the skeletal remains, and whether they were in fact the lost Romanov family, including Tsarevich Alexei (the royal heir) and one of his sisters.
‘We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y-STR testing.’ This line from the examining officers’ report shows the tests used. (PubMed, 2009) A brief description of each will show how the team came to their conclusion.
A person’s mother-line ancestry can be determined with mitochondrial DNA testing. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a type of DNA that is carried by both men and women but is only inherited from their mother. It is passed by a mother down to all her children. An exact match might mean the tested person is very likely to share a common maternal ancestor within the last 500 years. Exact matches are rare, but slight differences (one or two) can also lead to decisions about common relatives on the mother’s side.(Sorensen, 2009) The testing is done by sequencing nucleotides. The Romanov gravesite skeletons were tested in this way.
Autosomal STR testing examines Short Tandem Repeats, using the knowledge that most humans share about 99 percent of their DNA, while the rest is very different. This small portion is examined because, although its function in the body is not completely understood yet, it provides a high degree of variation that can be measured and compared. (Orchid Cellmark 2009)
These sequences repeat a number of times - between six and 40 - in a particular location on the DNA. For example, ACGTACGTACGTACGTACGTACGT. Each person can have a different number of repeats in the same place. Many STRs occur on each chromosome. One subset has been developed for identity testing purposes. (Orchid Cellmark Ibid). This was used in the Romanov case, and helped the scientists decide the relationship between the skeletons and that they belonged to one family.
Y-STR testing is done on the ...
Cite this document
(“Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/385958-identification-of-the-two-missing-romanov-children
(Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Essay)
“Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/385958-identification-of-the-two-missing-romanov-children.
The United States, unlike other countries such as Japan and Germany, has not employed this system of running the economy. Though the system has worked very well in the above mentioned countries, the United States continues to thrive well without its enforcement.
In the political world, one does not hide his or her standpoint like it happens in lecture rooms. It is therefore inappropriate to state that democracy is absolutely perfect. As matter of fact, it has been argued that democracy can also be a bad form of government (Ingram 2).
Still, it aimed to deter racism and discrimination that had affected so many people. The roots of this party dates back to the introduction of the pro-labor reforms, which were enacted by the Fair Labor Standards and the Wagner act. The Dixiecrats was the strongest movement in the southern states with the largest African American populations.
The children of the first two couples wandered around in spite of the warnings that their parents kept enunciating. Their parents continuously threatened to cut the trip short if they did not begin to do what they were being told but did not act on this threat.
Some developmental issues or constraints pertinent to the question of how children recognize the representations of the real world and as seen in diverse kinds of television programming, mainly the constraints concerned with symbolic processing.
Numerous children start watching TV at three months of age, and that by age two children is watching on the average of four to five hours daily.
This is a nursery rhyme that a child learns from his parents, teachers and grandparents. If you ask a child to say this rhyme, you will find the child singing it with wondrous expressions on his face, doing actions with his hands and pointing towards sky trying to tell us that the stars live in the sky.
riences in two positions which are at Al-Adwa’a Institute as a training and development supervisor from January 10, 2008 to March 30, 2010 and summer training at Saudi Arabia Airline in the summer of 2008. In Saudi Arabia Airline, I worked in the Aircraft Reliability Program
She had a brown handbag branded Gucci. Caroline is 56" (168cm), brown body complexion, and has hazel eyes. Her body is average in size. She has two ear piercings and is fond of wearing large earrings. She is aged 20 and has long hair.
Her primary language