ed by the combination of these chromosomes; and males have a combination of 46, XY chromosomes, while females have a combination of 46, XX chromosomes. These chromosomes consist of strands of genetic information, which are termed the DNA. Genes are parts of the DNA, and their location is known as the locus. Genes produce protein in human bodies through the information present in them. An autosomal chromosome from the mother and the father, constitute a pair of chromosomes that carry information that is by and large the same (Genetics).
The genes in different persons will be almost similar, with slight variations. In the DNA, these variations, which transpire in less than 1% of the DNA sequence, produce alleles. The abnormality of a gene results in abnormal protein, or an abnormal quantity of a normal protein. The pairs of autosomal chromosomes contain a gene from the mother and a gene from the father. If both these genes are healthy, then the pair is termed a healthy pair. If one of the genes is defective, and if the other gene produces extra amounts of proteins to prevent disease; then the disease is termed as recessive. Moreover, the gene is deemed to have been inherited in a recessive manner (Genetics).
In some cases, just one gene will be responsible for causing a disease. This is described as a dominant hereditary disorder. In such disorders, if one abnormal gene is inherited from a parent, then the child is likely to develop the disease. An individual with one abnormal gene is termed as heterozygous for that gene. Children, who receive an abnormal recessive disease gene from both the parents, develop the disease; and are rendered homozygous for that gene. If both the parents have a copy of a recessive disease gene, then each of their children, has a one in four, risk of developing that disease. If one of the parents has two copies of the recessive disease gene and the other parent has one copy, then each of their children, has a 50% chance of being