This right to confront your accuser in open court is regarded as the core of the English trial system (and of course that of other jurisdictions based on it).
All criminal cases start in the Magistrates’ courts. Petty offences, or offences not serious in nature are dealt with by Magistrates’ court. They are called summary offences. All cases regarding these offences are decided entirely in the Magistrates’ Court. Apart from summary offences, there can be two other types of offences. One is known as either-way offence. In either-way offences, the suspect has a choice. His case can either be heard by the Magistrates’ court or if so desired, he can insist on trial by judge and jury in the Crown Court. Magistrates’ Court can impose fines up to £ 5000, and punishments up to 12 months1. However, the Magistrates’ Court has power to impose more sentence if the defendant is charged with two or more offences, and at least two offences are either way offences. Over 95% of all criminal cases are dealt with by Magistrates’ Courts.2 Magistrates’ Courts may refer some cases to Crown Court if it reaches a conclusion that the defendant deserves more severe punishment than they can. However, all the three types of cases must be first heard by the Magistrates’ Court. This hearing is known as committal.
Offences of the other type are known as indictable offences. Indictable offences are to be tried only by Crown Court. Indictable offences are more serious criminal cases such as murder, manslaughter, assault, rape or robbery. The Crown Courts can hear appeals from orders of Magistrates Courts. These cases in Magistrates’ Courts are heard by three lay magistrates (who are known as justices of peace) or by a District Judge. The magistrates are volunteers from the locality. District Judge is a trained lawyer. He is a government servant.
The prosecution is usually carried out by the Crown Prosecution Service. A
Evidence, from prosecution or defence is admissible only if the witness is cross-examined by the other side and confronted in open court with omissions in previous…
The interest in these subjects is not surprising considering that crime present an impediment to the enjoyment of society of the benefits of progress that advanced civilization has brought to society. This interest and study has engendered a host of theories and schools of thought regarding the motivations of crime.
Pike clothesline applies both physical and online selling processes to grow its market share as well as increase its profits since clothing is a basic need and people are buying and selling clothing continuously. In offline selling, Pike cloth line operates a physical store where the customer walks in for negotiations.
This paper reviews the principles that have to be considered when conducting an investigation. In addition, this paper will explore the need to conform to those principles and what consequences might flow from any failure to follow these principles.
As labor law and judges have become more stringent in reviewing cases, they have also become more biased in favor of the employee in cases where there is any doubt of the case presented by the employer.
As such, attempts liability is founded upon a "deeds principle" which appears in direct violation of the "harms principle" upon which the very concept of punishment is founded.2 The stated brings us directly to the subjectivism/objectivism debate which, in itself, reflects important controversies in the entire concept of criminal liability.
However, it is difficult to identify precisely a definite date, from which the crimes became a serious problem for the society. Nevertheless, no specific solution has been found to tackle this problem. People have attempted to find different solutions like inventing sophisticated technical devices, working out various social development programmes, making psychological researches, which aim at preventing the crimes.
Chances of helping form the one who lives with you or near by you are becoming meagre. When western culture enhances women to take part and enter into all the fields of work, prestige and pride of family circle still works in such a way that women are
The author states that the justification for outsourcing looks very straight forward and in the early days the process was thorough and well thought through. By contracting out services to a third party, organisations could reduce their operating costs and refocus their efforts and remaining resources on their core competencies.
In some societies to be born as a woman is a tragedy. Generally, in such societies, the woman works under compulsive circumstances. “Women in the City of Dead,” is a suggestive title. It implies that every woman has a city within her heart, a city that she nurtures from the cradle to the grave and from the womb to the tomb.