Substance misuse and the harm caused by it is well known, and although its definition varies according to context, cultural practices, popular beliefs, local legislation has important role to play in reducing the harm it may cause. Substance misuse has been defined by illicit…
Therefore, it is considered to be a major public health and social issue (Goulden and Sondhi 2001).
In the year 2004 to 2005, 14% men and 8% women of the age range 16-59 had the history of illicit drug use in the previous year. The main problem substances were opioids. Most of the people attending treatment programmes were polysubstance abusers involving a range of illicit substances and alcohol. Reports indicated increased use of cocaine in comparison to cannabis, amphetamine, and LSD. The problem is more acute in the younger age group of the age range of 16-24 years, with a recorded percentage of 33% men and 21% women. The most commonly abused substances were cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy. There is another dimension of the harm caused by substance abuse. Those who abuse substances through injection route, the major harm caused by it is contamination with and transmission of blood-borne viruses. There have been reports of sharing needles directly and sharing other equipments. These may lead to HIV, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, sepsis, and thrombosis with or without embolism. Substance misuse may lead to overdosage leading to death, and there had been reports from Welsh. Substance misuse has been closely linked with crimes and offenses (Welsh Assembly Government 2007).
Given such harmful effects of substance misuse, there should be local legislation and policies to prevent harm related to substance misuse. Welsh is not an exception of that. The total economic and social cost of Class A drug misuse in Welsh amounts to £780 million a year and 90% of this has been connected to drug related crimes. Welsh Assembly Government has employed a 10-year strategy spanning between 2008-2018, which is known as Working Together to Reduce Harm with a goal to work in the framework of a National Agenda to tackle and reduce all harms associated with substance misuse (Eaton et al. 2007).
The key aims of this agenda are individual harm reduction, avoiding stigmatization ...
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This paper will try to explore issues about substance misuse, risks associated with it, prevalence, relapse, and proper treatment amidst the many approaches that have been explored for a while now. It will try to point out any debates on cause or relapse reasons as well as the role of the patient and persons surrounding him.
39).These substances activate dopamine receptors in the brain pathway; thus contributing to varied health and social problems in the society (Goodman, 2006, p. 76). Substance use and dependence not only create a burden to an individual but also to the societies.
This can stem in large part from the presence of trauma or abuse in their past lives, and the emotional disruption that results.
For example, looked-after children may fail to develop a secure attachment with a loving adult from their earliest days because of the dynamics present in their birth families-often the very dynamics that have ultimately led to their placement in care.
Early identification of substance abusers has brought more clients into the multi-tiered system currently modelled in the UK. However, it is not without its shortcomings. Access to services may be limited based on race or gender, and under-qualified providers may be less than adequate to appropriately deal with the magnitude of the problem.
In the year 2004 to 2005, 14% men and 8% women of the age range 16-59 had the history of illicit drug use in the previous year. The main problem substances were opioids. Most of the people attending treatment programs were polysubstance abusers involving a range of illicit substances and alcohol.
In addition to the analysis and results of development techniques, the discussion of poperian perspective that considers the cultural and environmental effects affecting the interventions and tools will help in providing insight in choosing interventions.
On the other hand, prolonged and excessive alcohol intake can be harmful, and may even lead to addiction and serious injuries. Possible effects are disorders in the mental faculty and behaviour; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory,
The author states that substance use disorder is a term that encompasses a number of different substances and disorders. Out of these disorders, substance abuse is the disorder that is frequently encountered. The approach with which a clinician will assess a substance abuse will differ depending on the context in which a patient presents for treatment.
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