Describe and discuss the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of two disorder associated with Cortisol production. Choose either Cushing’s syndrome, Addison’s or /and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).
Answer. The increased secretion of cortisol due to a…
To diagnose Cushing’s syndrome levels of free cortisol are checked in the urine. Levels of cortisol in the saliva and serum are checked at midnight to confirm the disease. Dexamethasone which is a synthetic glucocorticoid is administered which leads to decreased cortisol if the increased levels are due to a tumor in the anterior pituitary. Addisons disease is characterized by insufficiency of cortisol which is caused mostly due to production of antibodies against the adrenal gland within the body. This leads to decreased glucose metabolism in the body causing hypoglycemia and it can prove to be fatal in periods of stress and mild infections. Hyperpigmentation is also seen. Levels of free cortisol are checked in the urine and serum and saliva levels of cortisol are checked at midnight. Adrenocorticotropin hormone is then administered and levels of cortisol are measure. If they do not rise it indicates the insufficiency of the adrenal gland and rules out any problem with the anterior pituitary.
Radioimmunoassay is a technique in which a known quantity of labeled antibody and a labeled antigen is taken. This known complex is added to with unknown quantity of serum containing the antigens which needs to be measured. The unlabelled antigen displaces the labeled antigen and combines with the antibody. This unlabelled antigen and antibody is measured. Different quantities of serum are taken and added to the labeled complex and a graph is plotted and the values for the antigen in serum are measured. This method is extremely sensitive and specific because the antigen and antibody complexes formed are very specific for each other. It is also very sensitive because it can detect small amounts of antigen. The results obtained are accurate if many samples are taken. To improve accuracy it is important to purify the sample as well the reactants from foreign particles to prevent any false results. More samples ...
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(Clinical Biochemistry Essay Short Questions(degree)
“Clinical Biochemistry Essay Short Questions(degree)”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/386581-clinical-biochemistry-essay-short-questionsdegree.
Be sure to address the entire question(s). 1. Reread and edit your work. 5. Write in full sentences. Good Luck! 1) Francisco de Goya Edouard Manet The Third of May, 1808 The Execution Of Emperor 1814 Maximilian of Mexico 1867 Discuss the influences of war and modernization evident in the above works.
The biochemistry laboratory is extremely important for the diagnosis of various pathological conditions. The laboratory results provide crucial evidence for reaching to a conclusion with regard to diagnosis and management. Blood and urine samples are mainly used for the assessment in the biochemistry lab.
It is a form of government that is more pluralistic than totalitarian, more capitalistic than socialistic and more democratic than authoritarian. There are different forms of liberal democracy. It can take the limited form or the welfare form. The limited state is where the government advocates for the protection of the citizens, organizing the military in times of war, ensuring that the judicial system is running smoothly and ascertaining order through the police force.
Reduced oxygen consumption was observed when mitochondria were incubated with linoleoyl CoA and carnitine. The patient's blood levels of carnitine are lower than normal and an acylcarnitine derivative is present in blood and urine. Mass spectrometry analysis of urine identifies this acylcarnitine derivative as trans- 2-cis-4-decadienoyl-carnitine.
In many tissues, such as: adrenal glands, ovaries, placenta, testicles, adipose tissue and brain it catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Aromatase inhibitor has no influence on estrogen output from ovaries, but it has influence by interfering with the body's use of aromatase.
Levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormones are checked basically for hyper and hypo thryroidism. The basal metabolic rate is also determined because it increases greatly in hyperthyroidism whereas in hypothyroidism it is reduced.
One of the differential diagnoses is Sideroblastic anaemia. Generally Sideroblastic anaemia is condition where by the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes) and thereby