s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which certain antibodies are developed in the body against the thyroid gland which includes thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), thyroid growth stimulating immunoglobulin (TGI) and TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII). The TSI antibodies bind to the receptors on the thyroid gland where under normal conditions TSH binds and stimulate the secretion of the thyroid hormone. While bound to the receptor to block the effect of TSH they actually lead to the increased secretion of the thyroid hormone. Because of the increased thyroid hormone low levels of TSH hormone are found in the blood. This results in hyperthyroidism with an enlarged thyroid gland which leads to protrusion of the eyeball, dermopathy and high basal metabolic rates. Hashimotos disease is also an autoimmune disorder which leads to destruction of the thyroid epithelial cells. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD4+ T cells act against the gland leading to destruction of cells. Other antibodies against the thyroid include anti-TSH receptor antibodies, antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase. These lead to inflammation of the gland followed by wear out of cells. Hypothyroidism is the result which leads to enlargement of the gland. The basal metabolic rate drops and bradycardia, weight gain and somnolence are observed.
Levels of the thyroid hormones, TSH, antibodies and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are checked in both the conditions. In graves disease thyroid hormone levels are high, TSH levels are low, BMR is high and antibodies specific for this disease are seen. In hashimotos disease the levels of thyroid hormones are low, TSH levels are high, BMR is low and the antibodies specific for this disease are found in the blood.
There are four types of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 is known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 is referred to as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, the third type is