In keeping with the intricacies and complexities of modern sea trade in the 21st century, the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea also known as the Rotterdam Rules has been adopted by the UN since December 2008…
With different countries following their own choicest laws to protect and further their own commercial interests, global sea trade has been thrown into a quagmire of anarchy and gross malpractices which need to be thoroughly cleansed before accountability and responsibility fixtures are made. While the shipper and the ship owners had added responsibilities under the new Rules, it is also envisaged to introduce modern communication and technological innovations including e-commerce documentation, have sound laws for container movements and also bring in new laws and conventions that could fill the gaps left in the previous Shipping rules, especially with regard to Deck Cargo and balancing of risks and responsibility among the various players in the sea trade. It is widely believed that with more and more countries signing up for the Rotterdam Rules, it would fulfil its role as a precursor of robust and rule based transportation of Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea.
“The Rotterdam Rules are the direct and natural result of the deregulation and reforms that have been a boon to shippers, allowing for the flexibility and customized transportation central to any efficient supply chain.” (Rotterdam Rules, 2009).
The reason for the replacement was that the old versions did not included criteria for the carriage of goods in containers and transferring electronic data. This was the main reason that made the court of law to reinvent the old versions of law.
The Rotterdam rules clearly states the responsibility and accountability in certain situations where the container are stolen or if any damages happen to the ship. The other parties who are involved in the chain are also liable for the loss that happens while the goods are carried through sea. All these conditions were not included in the Hague rules and the Hague-Visby rules and the Hamburg rules. “The Ordinance of Rotterdam of 1721 declared that the owners should not ...
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(“ROTERDAM RULES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words”, n.d.)
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(ROTERDAM RULES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
“ROTERDAM RULES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/386594-roterdam-rules.
According to the report the goods have been delivered to him, and it also contains the terms and conditions at which the goods are being carried. Usually it was seen that the carriers were at a greater advantage and had more negotiating and bargaining powers as compared to the shipper. The Hague rule which was a bit of amendment an old Sea law.
It also deals with other personal matters such as hygiene, prayer and sexual intercourse. This sharia law varies from one culture to another in accordance to its strictness. Though it varies in regards to culture, it is considered the law of God which is opposed to the interpretation of law according to human nature.
Examples of countries bound by the Rules include; the United Kingdom, South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Australia, Netherlands, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland and many others.1
When goods are dispensed from the United Kingdom, the contract will be affected by the Rules.
The only connection which the plaintiff has to the new asset is that it was acquired with the old asset. The defendant acquired the value inherent in the new asset with the value inherent in the old asset. The plaintiff must have something of value. Generally, he must have an asset; that is, a legal or equitable right, which is not held by everyone.
In England, these considerations led to the promotion of model bills of lading and to unsuccessful demands for legislation. Numerous efforts were made to secure a uniform international approach; as a result, The Hague Rules1 was finally drafted by the Maritime Law Commission of the International Law Association at meeting held at Hague in 1921, after considerable discussions among the representatives of either side.
These rules are set to replace the Hague rules of 1924 and the Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules of 1978. In addition these rules will also replace country specific rules like the US Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 and similar other legislations (Darling, 2009).
An example related to lifestyle has been given whereby two populations of the elderly were studied by researchers. The tow population included sedentary and active. The findings were that the cognitive was greatly influenced. Exercise was observed to influence executive function positively and quantitative skills were positively affected.
Rule number one states that exercise boosts brainpower. Empirical data supports this and shows that exercise promotes executive function, spatial tasks, reflexes, and quantitative potentials. This is because exercise increases oxygen supply to the brain towards mental sharpness and increased number of neurons.
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