(Davis & Moore, 1945: quoted in Zaidi, 1999) The most important factor of social stratification includes the division of society in three main classes i.e. upper, middle and lower. Lower or labor class makes the largest stratum of almost all societies that contains limited income resources and wealth. An overwhelming majority of the individuals belonging to this class has to survive and fulfill their needs and requirements in these scarce resources. Since the poor stratum or lower class is not able to keep the wolf from the door even by working hard from dawn to dusk, almost all members of this class engage themselves in financial activities in order to meet with their growing expenditures. Consequently, the children are also expected regarding lending a helping hand to their parents and senior family members by earning something in one way or the other. Hence, child labor has been in vogue for centuries, and children of lower stratum had been deprived of proper nutrition, adequate learning facilities basic education and other fundamental rights since ever.
The working classes had been undergoing extremely miserable and pathetic situation in all parts of the planet. Their situation was worse in European countries during 18th and 19th centuries, where the exploitation of the innocent children was order of the day. They worked at the houses, farms and agricultural lands of the rich clergy and nobility from dawn to dusk, and did not get any money in return. Industrial revolution of 1750 increased the miseries of the working classes and their children were forced to work in mills and factories with no or nominal remunerations and wages. Since there had been taken place no legislation to protect the rights of women and children at the eve of industrial revolution, there was no statute of law to bar the recruitment of children in industries. It was the time when industry was in its budding and the owners of mills, factories and industrial units required