Achieving strategic integration is one of the policies described in the Harvard model by David Guest (1987, 1989a, 1989b, 1991) and it is the ability of the organization to integrate HRM issues into its strategic plans, ensure that the various aspects of HRM cohere, and provide for the line managers to incorporate an HRM prospective into their decision making (Armstrong, M 2000; p 13). Wright and McMahan (1992: 298) define SHRM as “the pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals”.
Schuler and Jackson (1987) have quoted few examples of HR strategies associated with a few strategic outcomes associated with achieving competitive advantage for organizations to achieve, such as cost reduction, quality enhancement and Innovation. For example, strategic practices to achieve Quality Enhancement would require good recruitment and selection, comprehensive induction programmes, empowerment and high discretion jobs, high levels of training and development, harmonization, highly competitive pay and benefits packages, and a key role of performance appraisal. The integration or strategic-fit model is regarded central to the concept of strategic HRM. This is also referred to as the matching model. According to this model, the HR strategy should be an integral part of the business strategy contributing to the business planning process. The strategic integration happens in two ways, the vertical and the horizontal. The HR strategy aligned to the business strategy is referred to as the vertical integration, and the integration between different elements of the people strategy is referred to as the horizontal strategy (Shields, 2007).
The SHRM version of Miles and Snow model (1984) suggests that organizations follow generic strategy and then develop a structure