Difficulties arise with this condition, and affects: “intellectual, emotional, physical, language, social and sensory development” (Vickerman, 2008). The concept of this condition had existed more than a century, but its etiology remains unknown (Occupational Therapy Cork, n.d.). A number of theories had been developed; however, none specifically pinpointed its etiology. Although the primary reflex theory had been the initial model for dyspraxia, stimulation of the brain theory better illustrated the developmental learning and coping strategies on dyspraxia clients.
The theories, primitive reflex theory and stimulation of the brain theory had both been based on development and capability of central nervous system (central and peripheral). The grounds for primitive reflex theory (neuromaturational model), as asserted by Mulhall (n.d.), involved the immaturity of neurological reflexes as disruption in nervous system development occurs. Alternatively, the stimulation of the brain theory (dynamic systems model) proposed “the interpretation of sensory inputs by the CNS, and particular actions are selected based on current experience, state of internal and external environment and one’s memory of similar movements” (Floet & Duran, 2010). The general causes for both theories are similar: “hereditary, physical/psychological trauma, movement deprivation, soft neurological damage, perceptual difficulties, obesity or low fitness level” (Hammond, 2005). In primitive reflex model, causes given had been arranged in primary and secondary order—in hierarchal pattern. These had been neatly categorized, and most involved elements directly and indirectly connected with CNS function. On the other hand, stimulation of the brain approach had shown a more complex relationship. The dynamism of the model had been presented in a way in which all factors (causes) had interlinked with each other. This revealed one significant point, “the performance of a motor action