They encourage their child to be independent and individualistic. They also engage in discussion and explanations over matters of discipline and family decision making, thus parents listen patiently to a childs point of view as well as provide sensitive guidance. Authoritative parenting is effective in shaping a childs cognition. It is associated with task persistence, academic achievement, social maturity, high self-esteem and confidence, self-controlled in their ability to resist engaging in disruptive behavior, and less gendered type. Children are competent, responsible, and independent. Authoritative parenting also encourages intrinsic motivation (Alarcon).
Authoritarian parents set high standards, place a high value on conformity, and expect obedience without any questions or comments. They are demanding and unresponsive to a childs needs. Authoritarian parenting approach affects a childs cognition negatively. Children who are consistently treated in an authoritarian way tend to be withdrawn, rebellious, and unhappy, have a low self-esteem, anxious, lack intellectual curiosity, and react to others with hostility when frustrated. Permissive parents are warm and accepting, but make no demands or set limits on their children. Since they are non-controlling, these parents allow their children to regulate their own behavior. They allow their children to make their own decisions at any age. This parenting approach affects a childs cognition negatively. Children of permissive parents tend to be immature, impulsive, underachievers, rebellious, low self-esteem, dependent on adults, and showed less persistence on school tasks (Alarcon).
Through various research and studies, it has been discovered that children subject to authoritative parenting style are securely attached to their parents. On the other hand, children subject to authoritarian or permissive