In general, hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver cells caused by a variety of causative agents which are now labeled and designated through various letters from A to E (World Health Organization, “Health Topics”). The small enterovirus which causes infectious hepatitis has a single strand RNA virus which does not possess an outer envelope (Bricker, et.al., p. 284). The transmission of this disease is fecal-oral, and in some instances of epidemics, infection is caused by contaminated food or water; it is not commonly transferred through the blood (Bricker, et.al., p. 284). It is a disease which is common in countries and in areas with poor sanitation, in developing countries, and in crowded urban areas. It is also a self-limiting disease and has an incubation period of 15-50 days (Bricker, et.al., p. 284).
The disease process of Hepatitis A starts with the ingestion of food items or water contaminated with the hepatitis A virus. As previously explained, the hepatitis A virus particularly targets the liver cells causing the latter to inflame or be infected. The virus enters the liver via the portal circulation and when it reaches the liver, it then multiplies in the liver cells (Bricker, et.al., p. 285). Hepatic injury is also caused by the virus (Bennett, “Infectious Diseases”). The liver then displays necrosis or cell death as demonstrated by centrilobular areas and also a rise in the cellularity in the portal areas of the liver. As a result of the inflammation, the lymph nodes and the spleen can also exhibit inflammation (Bennett “Infectious Diseases”). The liver injury often manifest in three ways: by the direct cellular injury which manifests as increased serum liver enzyme levels; cholestasis which then leads to jaundice and increased bilirubin levels in the blood; and finally insufficient liver function which decreased the albumin levels in the blood and lengthens the prothrombin time (PT) (Bennett “Infectious
These chronic diseases seem to increase as people get older. One of these chronic diseases shall be discussed in this paper and a particular focus on the following areas shall be emphasized: etiology,…
The name for this disease has been derived from the Latin name of sausage. The name botulism was first devised by a German physician named Muller in 1870 (MedicineNet 1). In 1895, clostridium botulinum bacteria were isolated for the first time. In 1944, Dr.
First of all, stop eating foods high in fat and cholesterol and try a healthier diet. As a consequence, this leads onto the problem of being overweight. Once someone’s diet improves then body weight will naturally decrease. An extension of this is an increase in physical activity because extra energy will be used up thus reducing body weight.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are usually associated with causing mortality risk, studies show that cardiovascular risk increase if the patient suffers from anemia (Fishbane, 2005, p.716). Cardiovascular disease is normally associated with the renal disease, while chronic kidney disease enhances hypertension and dyslipidemia, which leads to renal failure.
This restricts air flow from and to the lungs, consequently making a person experience shortness of breath. Converse to asthma, this restriction is inadequately reversible and normally gets increasingly detrimental over time. In addition pulmonary issues augment in incidence with age.
This essay analyses in detail the factors that could predict COPD disease including continued smoking and poor exercise capacity. The damage inflicted on the lungs over time, particularly due to smoking, results in the disease. To understand this disease, a comprehension of the working of the lungs would be critical.
While AIDS is only the trigger, its sequels - diarrhea, tuberculosis, and systemic fungal infections are the bullets that actually kill. These sequels need special attention as all three in their non-AIDS context are of a socio cultural nature: tuberculosis is a socio-economic disease caused by malnutrition and diarrhea and systemic fungal infections are caused by poor hygiene and contaminated water.
The author states that a person can contact Ebola through physical contact with a sick person. Scientists and doctors have tried so much to come up with various preventive measures for this particular disease, though they come across many challenges. This is because it is not known clearly where the animals that originally caused Ebola are situated.
This is known to modern mathematics as ‘SIR’ model.
Some individuals are considered to be susceptible. Although they don’t have the disease, there is still chance that they might get infected, for example, if they were in contact with
The virus produces copies of DNA that are incorporated into the host genome and used to produce more viral proteins that create more viruses. Consequently, it is almost impossible to identify the virus
6 pages (1500 words)Essay
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