esting and Douglas,Dan and Smith (TOEFL Monograph Series) and many others have been focused/discussed to conclude the merits of these distinction and prove them constructive.
To define language is a difficult task; same is the case with its assessment. It is perhaps the easiest and the cheapest thing that is in use. It prevails all around us and all the time we are using to fulfill our petty needs to the complex matters. But it does not mean that all the speakers or learners of a single language have the same level of knowledge; their levels and uniqueness are of course different owing to the individuality of every single human being. Usually a person’s overall development is taken synonymous to his/ her language cognition and its use as and when required.
Importance of language assessment cannot be denied as it has increased manifold in current times owing to the fact that this world has become a global village with the advancement of science and technology; people of various ethnic backgrounds have to interact with one another when they move from one place to another, especially when people move for study purpose or for employment.
Currently, English is the lingua franca at international level. In order to assess the language proficiency and understanding of the non-native speakers of English various tests are prevalent which assess student’s ability to use that particular language. Out of these tests, TOEFL and IELTS are most popular ones. (Alderson, J C and Clapham, C Research Report 2.) These tests are generally demanded by various UK, US, Canadian, Australian and many English speaking countries organizations as well as universities from its non-native employers and students before their proceeding(online History of IELTS).
The major focal point why these tests are demanded is that their validity, reliability and attainability is of high value that crystal clear the language proficiency level of the test taker(Criper, C and Davies Research Report 1)..