The concept of ship registration is now virtually a vibrant industry by itself as states actively vie for the prospect of registering foreign shipping vessels with even landlocked nations like Mongolia, Bolivia and small nation-states like Malta, Liberia and Panama becoming big…
According to the International Transport Workers Federation (ITF), flags of convenience can be defined as: ‘where beneficial ownership and control of a vessel is found to lay elsewhere than in the country of the flag the vessel is flying’ (ITF, 2007, Pg.1).
There are two main modes of registering shipping vessels: closed and open registers. Closed registers are the conventional form whereby the ship owners and the majority of crew emanate from the registering country. Open registers or ‘flags of convenience’ are however those registrations, which are open to any nationality subject to the registering country’s regulations that are often very relaxed to attract as many ship-owners as possible. Open registers are further subdivided into two more categories: Open National Registers and Open International Registers. Under Open National Registers, the ships are obliged to follow the trading regulations of the flag-state encompassing employment and tax guidelines. In Open International Registers, the ships are less stringently regulated enjoying tax exemptions on their profits, easy employment terms for their international crews, lax company regulations and relaxed safety standard enforcement (O’Keefe, 2002, p. 4).
Although flag states are required to ensure that ships registered in their domain follow the requisite international laws in addition to administrative control, technical and social issues, however most of those licensing the flag of convenience (FOC) rarely bother to monitor the operations of the vessels. The United Nations has blamed these states for exacerbating marine accidents and compromising maritime security and safety (Gianni, 2008). According to the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS) in Gianni (2008), ‘many shipping accidents and resulting loss of life and marine pollution are not the result of ...
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(“Maritime Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1”, n.d.)
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(Maritime Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words - 1)
“Maritime Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/391178-maritime-policy.
The threats include pollution from a wide range of land-based sources (industry, municipalities, and agriculture), extensive resource depletion due to unregulated fishing and mariculture, oil pollution due to waste dumping, and many others.
Intensive efforts to create an effective marine environment regime to address the threats were initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1991.
Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 called for new and integrated approaches to the sustainable development of oceans and coasts. There has since emerged an international trend towards the adoption of new approaches to marine policy based on a holistic, integrated and sustainable management of ocean resources at regional and national levels.
In context with the 'Maritime Externalities' we mean those costs that take place in terms of 'losses' to the general public. In other words 'maritime externalities' act like a threat to the people and global environment.
Health: Marine pollution is not new.
(Evans J, 1990, p. 78)
The Australian owned mercantile navy continues to lead in the early fraction of the 21st century. The nationwide flag, on the other hand maintaining one of the uppermost seats worldwide as far as tonnage is concerned. (Stopford M, 1997, p.
Thus an industry connected with maritime transportation remains a global economic pivot. Economics, like other social life, does not conform to a simple and coherent pattern(Galbraith 1958)2. However, a striking pattern of the maritime transportation industry has been its cyclical nature of highs and lows which during times of lows appear to many as a industry in recession or some would call a 'sunset' industry.
With open register ships currently accounting for over 50% of the global trading fleet and the abolishment of nationality requirements, only developing countries still maintain the tradition of having entire crews sharing the same nationality (Johnston, 1991).
Insurance is also termed as ‘risk management’. There are various types of insurance policy for different problems namely ‘life insurance’ which is related to one’s life and ‘property and casualty insurance’, a type of insurance that considers problems related to
In a broad categorisation, the maritime industry is sub-divided into three principal categories including the passenger shipping services, bulk cargo-carrying services and the liner cargo-carrying services (Garcia 2005, p.10).
The paper below is an academic argument in favour of and against container systems for regional (inland) and global (maritime) freight transport using factors such as initial investments needed for containerisation, Speed