The research also evaluated the current state of laws and measures and found them to be both insufficient and at times redundant to curb football hooliganism. The research recommends that the state move away from treating football hooliganism as just another crime. Instead, there is a need to undertake an exhaustive study into the reasons why football hooligans operate. Once these reasons are know, the state needs to build up partnership with local communities, schools and families in both preventing and reporting incidences of football hooliganism.
There has been an increased in the incidences of football fans creating havoc and indulging in fights before, during and after the matches of their favourite teams. These incidences are seen as a revival of what had come to be known as football hooliganism and had plagued the game in the 1960s through the 1980s. The term, ‘football hooliganism’, itself is defined in various ways and includes several different acts of vandalism. Football hooliganism has largely been described in the media as acts of violence and chaos created by the fans of football clubs during the matches. The term is also inclusive of acts of violence and even gang wars that may occur at a much later period after the matches are over or before they have begun, and would include fan clubs and gangs. Though, football hooliganism is recognized by the state as a crime that leads to arrests and punishments, the term itself has not been clearly defined in legal terms. The current paper endeavours to arrive at a conclusive understanding of the term football hooliganism and to develop a holistic definition for the same. With this, it is expected that insights could be gained for developing better prevention and penal programs.
Moreover, the phenomenon of football hooliganism that had originally been noticed in the early 18th century has