These CFCs rise up to the atmosphere, destroying the layer. The chlorine atom of a CFC reacts with an oxygen atom of the ozone molecule, resulting in two molecules of oxygen. The ozone is destroyed.
An important long-term effect of the destruction of the ozone layer is a rise in the ultraviolet radiation near the earth. This in turn is a reason behind rising skin cancer, degrading of several substances like plastics, paints and fabrics, and reduced yield of major crops. It was reported by the Environmental Effects Panel in 1991 that the consequences of “a sustained 10% loss of ozone” would be a 26% rise in the occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancers (Anderson, Sarma and Sinclair, 31). A 1% loss would result in an increase of 100,000 to 150,000 cases of cataract-induced blindness throughout the world. The resulting rise in ultraviolet radiation would be responsible for a rise in the occurrence of melanoma.
It was due to such drastic consequences that the Montreal Protocol was set signed by 24 nations on 16th September 1987 (Maunder 38). According to this Protocol there has to be a reduction in the consumption of CFCs by particular amounts, which would greatly reduce the degree of damage