This realm or specific place should then be understood as altogether different from the world of abstract rationality. It is also to be understood that the existence of the universal truths can be verified in the specific place which we call thought.
The acceptance of either of the two assertions presents its own problems. If the second assertion be taken as true then the following problem arises. There must be a re-examination of larger metaphysical schemas which have come as a result of scientific advancements. This is so because these advancements rule out the independence of universal and rational knowledge.
On the other hand, if we take the other assertion to be true, then we will have to account for the relation between the world inside and outside. That is to say we will have to examine and explain the relation between the world as it is in itself; as opposed to the world as is apparent to the mind. The aim of this essay is to assume the first assertion to be true and explain Spinoza’s system of philosophy which attempts to solve this problem (often referred to as the inside – outside problem. The essay will also try and solve the inside – outside problem using the principles propounded by Spinoza in Ethics2. The world as it is can be said to be the body or the substance, and the perception of it the mind. This essay limiting itself for the sake of brevity, proceeds on the assumption that the world as it is in itself represented by the body (or substance to be exact, which is represented by body as per the then prevalent notion as opposed to our understanding of the world now). The necessary corollary for the first assumption is the second assumption that the world as is perceived exists in the mind, that is, the world as is perceived is a modification of the mind.
During the said Modern period, there were several prominent philosophers. There were