According to Ajzen (1988); Ajzen (1991); O’Donnel et al. (1994) and Conner (1993), a persons planned behaviour change has a significant contribution to his/her attitudes towards various conditions. Further, to them, the success of the planned behaviour significantly depends on the social-economic situation of the person in the past, present and future aspirations. Ajzen and Driver (1991: 1992); Ajzen and Fishbein (1980); Dejoy and Wilson (1995); DeVellis et al. (1990) and Newcomb et al. (1992) support the above assertions arguing that if one plans to do away of a certain behaviour, then there are strings attached which range from financial stability to family cohesion.
Further, intentions and wishes to abandon a certain habit depend on time and gender. From research, time affects any outcome since other factors come into play which might significantly affect the results or influence earlier readings/measurements. The way a person acts now has a significant bearing on how he/she will react in the near future as well as in a distant future. Godin et al. (1993); Adams (1994); Godin (1993) and Heatherton et al. (1991) argue that time lapse has effects not only on the results but also on the validity and reliability of research findings. This is so because of factorial design impacts on the end-term outcome.
Gender on the other hand is a very important aspect to consider in planned behaviour changes as it is believed that females are better and more confident to follow a rule they had set than males as the later are easy to influence and change their track than females. Hellman et al. (1991); Godin et al. (1992); Liska (1984); MacKay (1994) and Joreskog and Sorbom (1993) is support of the above argument argue that females are more likely to convince of the negative impact of an habit than their male counterparts since they are most likely to give it a hearing