reated as simply miniature adults for a long time, and it was only in the early 20th century – in other words, fairly recently – that child development in particular was explored by theorists. Among the most popular of these theorists are Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, whose theories will be the focus of this research paper. Their theories shall be discussed in detail – focuses, strengths, weaknesses – and will also be compared and contrasted.
Sigmund Freud’s research focuses mainly on sexual desires and libido, dating back to the late 19th-early 20th centuries when he first developed the concept of psychoanalysis. The key point of his tenets is that humans are driven by their instincts and innate sexual urges (libido), which would determine their behavior regardless of repression. Specifically, even if one represses his libido, it will instead manifest in other ways – for instance, one may sate his sexual desires by pushing himself in his work. Humans, he says, are polymorphously perverse, capable of deriving sexual pleasure – or in cruder terms, getting off – from practically anything and everything (Psychosexual Development, 2010).
Specifically, children are said to undergo five psychosexual stages, each with its own erogenous zone (henceforth referred to as e-zone) which the id focuses on; any trauma suffered during one of the first three stages – the oral, anal, and phallic stages – may result in fixation of that particular stage’s e-zone (Feist and Feist, 2007), which Freud connects with adult personalities and personality disorders. Locke (2009) cites Edward Cullen, a character from the popular vampire romance series Twilight, as an example of repression and fixation. He is said to have been sired at the age of seventeen – the genital phase of development – and is neither come to terms with his (biological) parents’ death nor been able to fully mature into an adult. Thus, while he is chronologically a hundred ...
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Particular attention is given to the democratic development model out of various models of democracy in the West. It is because some of the political concepts and practices have been attempted straightway only in the West (Held, 2006). Development democracy proclaims that political role play is a right thing in itself and plays a pivotal part in the growth of a participatory, well-versed and knowledgeable citizenry.
Psychologists began expressing their interests in studying child development between childhood and adolescent stages in the early 20th Century. Earlier researches, however, mainly focused on studying abnormal behaviors in the children. Later on, researchers became increasing interested in studying other topics, which include typical child development and factors affecting child development.
Under each, different theorists have analyzed different constructs, for example, intelligence, morals and cognition. Of particular interest to this paper are the classical cognitive and moral development theories. According to Piaget, knowledge grows with time as individuals make more logic out of reality.
Crimes have led to loss of lives and breaking of initially enjoyed relationships within the particular societies. In attempts to study, analyze and classify crimes, various philosophers have come up with integral theories to help understand causes, effects, and prevention of crimes with the societies.
There are many causes and effects of crime witnessed in the various affected societies. Most of the causes of crime are psychological in nature with effects detrimental to the affected individuals or societies. Current research provides an explicit and comprehensive coverage of the various psychological theories attributed to criminal offenses and criminals.
1950s due to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development (Coles & Erikson, 1970); of which was a major breakthrough as it explained that development is an ongoing process. Erikson’s theory was pioneering because it was in direct opposition of Freud’s psychosocial
urney of being a child to an adult is greatly tackled scientifically through human development studies and it is a multidisciplinary study about changes occurring to people. The study involves medicine, biology, chemistry, sociology, demography, psychology, sociology, economics
Crime and longitudinal criminal activities are synonymous aspects of the various societies. This research paper explores different societies and different or similar forms of criminal activities. The researcher also presents the developmental crime theory and factors that may make individuals indulge or begin to develop criminal motives.
hildhood development is normally distributed into three broad domains such as the physical development domain, the cognitive development domain, and the social, emotional development domain (Salkind, 2002).
The physical development domain of childhood development addresses
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