Bioreactors are generally defined as the devices which are used for the production of the biological compounds under tightly controlled and closely monitored environment. The operating conditions such as pH, Temperature, pressure, nutrient supply and waste removal are highly…
It is followed by the dedifferentiation of the cells. This process produces only a minimal concentration of the cells. Hence the use of micro carrier cultures is done for the well-mixed bioreactor systems. The defects in the skeleton system are a big impediment to the normal functioning of the human system. The autogenous bone transplantation is practiced for the bone replacement so far. (Schieker, 2006).This method has increased risk of surgery and post operative morbidality to the patients. This method also has the disadvantage of limited quantity and the secondary operational procedure costs. The calcium phosphate ceramics is widely used for the production of the bone supplement. The hydroxyapatites of the calcium phosphate ceramics have considerable clinical use because of their chemical and relvant crystallographic structures to bone. The cell based therapy aims at developing the 3D biohybrid structure of a scaffold and cultured cells. The bioreactors that are established for the microbes and mammalian cultures are not suitable for the 3D structure constructs. Hence the need for a tissue specific bioreactor design arose. To restore back the skeleton function, the bone tissue engineering is used. The production of tissue engineered piece of spongy bone is one of the challenging fields in bone tissue engineering. The three key elements of bone tissue engineering are osteogenic progenitor cells, osteoinductive growth factors and osteoconductive matrices.
Osteoblasts are the differentiated cells that arise from the osteoprogenitor cells. These cells are very mobile and they change the shape and size according to the matrix of the bone. These cells appear with in the vascular tissue. These cells are responsible for the synthesis and the secretion of the organic matrix of the bone. Bone remodeling and the bone reformation are the two types of the tissue engineering processes that can are possible with the osteoblast cells. ...
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et al., (2005) By Submitted to (April 2011) Photo credit: Cover page: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_GM4SVkO2ERg/TFt1pna2f8I/AAAAAAAAAVk/_s4rTdDIzbk/s1600/BFblog+(282).jpg Part 1: Critical discussion of how sport & exercise scientists support evidence based practice in different professional contexts Brief: Critically discuss the ways in which sport and exercise scientists support evidence based practice in different professional contexts through research.
With years of research and improvement in procedure, this surgery has more hurdles to cross as significant morbidity has been associated with it still. Intensive care is needed by about 40% of patients. The complications requiring ICU care are respiratory or hepatic or neurological problems (Scales, 2008).
..the social body constrains how the physical body is perceived and experienced’ (Shilling, The Body and Social Theory, 2003, p.65). How far do you agree with the above statement? Choose at least two examples of the body in culture The body could be defined as the constituent of numerous elements making a single component present within a society.
It is process in which localized removal of bone which is replaced by the newly formed bone takes place. Osteoclast and Osteoblast are the two principle types of cell types found in bone.(11) They are the major effectors in the turnover matrix. They contribute to skeletal mass, structure and strength, by osteoclasts helps in resorbing the bone whereas the osteoblast in forming the bone.
are recognised by the DNA polymerase as starting points and the DNA strands will move down and for each nucleotide, a complimentary nucleotide will be added on the DNA template and the end results contains two molecules of new DNA with one single stranded before the prior and
Healing the bone involves four stages.
In an article by Daily Herald, Dr. Joseph Janicki explained that immediately after the fracture, the bone undergoes the inflammatory state where the ends of the broken bones bleed and swell.
The loading condition also does not have a uniform pressure.
Center loading illustrates a case of uniformly distributed load on a surface. As such, the point of application of the load has a central point at equal distances from all the edges of the
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