Thus, scientists do their best to make it possible to reveal the danger of myocardial infarction in patients timely in order to save their lives. This paper will seek to discuss the topic of myocardial infarction in detail, including prevention/ treatment options and recommendations for future research.
Myocardial infarction can be defined as “the irreversible damage of myocardial tissue caused by prolonged ischemia and hypoxia. In simpler terms, myocardial infarction is caused by the death of one of the heart muscles which, in its turn, leads to irreversible changes in the heart function and, in many cases, to death” (Sharis & Cannon 2003). Professionals in cardiac studies usually link myocardial infarction etiology to complete focal blockage of one of the coronary arteries or their branches. The latter reflects in and leads to impaired contractility of one of the heart muscles but does not extend beyond the affected heart segment (Sharis & Cannon 2003). The myocardial ischemia begins in the inner lining of the heart, called endocardium and then spreads to the outer heart lining (epicardium); the risks of irreversible heart damage significantly increase if the complete blockage lasts 15-20 minutes (Sharis & Cannon 2003). Irreversible damage covers the affected segment and occurs within the first 2 or 3 hours following the infarction (Sharis & Cannon 2003). Restoration of the blood flow and heart activity is associated with the salvation of the heart muscle, and the earlier the salvation occurs the better the heart and blood flow will be. The size of the affected area is the determining factor of death of infarction, and increased oxygen supply to the site of blockage is believed to be a more effective instrument of salvaging the heart muscle, compared to reducing oxygen demand (Sharis & Cannon 2003). A whole set of modifiable risk factors contributes to the development of myocardial infarction risks in different population groups – smoking, diabetes,