Recently, a series of epidemiological observations have reported a reduced rate HIV positive case in males undergoing circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa. In the context of this belief circumcision is also considered to be a ‘natural condom’. Some theorists are well…
Reproductive Health Matters, the safest way to prevent HIV infections is still to use a condom rather than relying on assumptions which are yet to be proven sufficiently (Bonner, 2001). Bonner is of the opinion that unless certain facts are not proven practically, it is unwise to adopt and follow such assumptions. The facts to be proven encompass umpteenth number of issues such as the reason and the way how circumcision is risk-free, the exact relationship between circumcision status and the remaining STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). Also, Bonner is still waiting for an answer backed by sufficient evidence that whether or not positive result found in high-risk populations will reap equal results in case of other general groups. However, according to Updegrove, various conclusions insist that uncircumcised males tend to suffer from higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (Updegrove, 2001). The same has been coherently acknowledged by Ronald Gray and his team with similar mindset (Gray, Kigozi & Serwadda, et al, 2007). Other think-tanks, Bailey, Plummer and Moses, all consider circumcision as an anti-HIV measure (Bailey, Plummer & Moses, 2001). Newell and Barnighausen have gone on to confirm that male circumcision cuts down HIV risk even in the general population (Newell & Barnighausen, 2007). Nevertheless, it should be noted that all the above think-tanks do reveal a certain level of uncertainty in expressing their perspectives. Hence, the two completely distinct recommendations; whether or not to replace condoms with circumcision appear to be a highly perplexing issue.
Bonner highlights an investigation according to which circumcised men reveal higher occurrence of genital discharge (Bonner, 2001). He puts forward a French report which reveals that both circumcised as well as uncircumcised men exhibit almost same state of HPV incidence which plays a vital role in cervical cancer (Bonner, 2001). By referencing an American case, Bonner diligently ...
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This paper is a reflection on the interviews conducted with four individuals: a student, an ordinary employee who used to be a sex worker, a medical professional and an HIV counsellor. The selected individuals are from different walks of life to gather diverse opinions on the preventive measures in combating the spread of the disease and whether these measures are apposite to its cause.
Wikipedia. 23 Feb. 2007. 24 Feb. 2007. . There are three major transmission routes which have been identified:
Sexual transmission: The majority of HIV infections are acquired through this form of transmission. It can occur when infected sexual secretions of one partner come into contact with the rectal, genital or oral membranes of another.
Health Program evaluation is paramount to gauge the effects of public health actions, since "effective program evaluation is a systematic way to improve and account for public health actions by involving procedures that are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate" (Framework for Program evaluation, 1999).
Although opponents of circumcision question the mutilation or removal of foreskin resulting to painful and decrease sexual response, existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of neonatal male circumcision because it prevents cases of urinary tract infection (UTI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD) and penile cancer for infants and adults.
So attempts to save the women from the practice may in fact reflect a longer-lived prejudice against all things 'African'.
Njambi suggests that the current campaign against "female genital mutilation" (or FGM) in fact suggests that the human body can be separated from its cultural context, and that those who are so against the practice are perpetuating a "culture/nature dualism" that has been "roundly questioned by feminists in science studies".
Adolescents have very few peer-reviewed studies relating to HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, practices beliefs and attitudes. Surveys have been conducted among adolescents subsequent to the apprehension of an increase in HIV infections.
It was determined that in 1980s 60% of newborn boys in the United States went through circumcision and today this rate is a bit lower – 56%. Many boys in the United States and Canada still undergo circumcision
According to the report in the Middle Eastern communities, the male control of the society is such that they deserve clean females for a marital relationship. In the Middle East, there is a social obligation of women to desist from sexual relationship until they got married. Knowing that the society they control requires them to associate with pure women.
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