that he considered this question to be irrelevant. He reckoned that American policy makers and citizens should first answer this more important question, namely, “Is it legitimate and morally correct for the United States to invade Vietnam in the first place?” This position was radically different from the mainstream consensus of the day. Even in the American Promise text written by James Roark, the moral and legal aspects of the Vietnam War are not carefully scrutinized. The American Promise text essentially reiterates the opinions of intellectuals such as William F. Buckley, who were in support of American intervention in Vietnam and were only concerned with the costs and benefits of the war.
The communist North Vietnam was deemed a threat to the sovereignty and political independence of South Vietnam. The establishment intellectuals of the day feared that once South Vietnam falls to communism, the neighboring countries too would be consumed by communism through the ‘domino effect’. Some even believed that the entire South East Asia would become part of the Soviet bloc if America did not constantly keep vigil. Although such fears of the situation in Vietnam were much exaggerated, with the support of the mainstream media the war was started by the Kennedy Administration. Later when Lyndon Johnson assumed the office of President, he escalated the war by sending more troops and ammunition to Vietnam. The decision to drop Napalm on Vietnamese countryside so as to clear the dense tropical foliage would prove disastrous for American diplomacy. Beyond the stated purpose of de-foliage, the infiltration of the chemical into people’s bodies would lead to catastrophic health conditions. Even today, more than forty years since the conclusion of the war, subsequent generations of Vietnamese continue to suffer from consumption of Napalm. American intervention in Vietnam had led to the deaths of millions of innocent and helpless people. The sad fact