The latter represents people’s participation in the environmental changes. “A direct cause is a cause that leads directly to an observed effect. The observed effect that we are concerned with is the rise in the Earth’s temperature (David Humphreys, p.19). Scientists agree that the direct cause of this heating “is the change in the radiative forcing of the Earth’s climatic system as the result of increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases” (David Humphreys, p.19). The main underlying cause identified is the burning of fossil fuels including oils and coals: things that are very much essential to “energy generation and industrial production” (David Humphreys, p.20). The underlying cause simply refer to human activities that results to the the increased concentration of greehouse gases in the athmosphere.
Surprisingly or not surprisingly, the term inquality has surfaced to be one of the underlying causes of environmental degradation. What once only a social problem now lays inside the perimeter of environmental concern. Inequalities discussed in the book covers political ineqaulities, economic inequalities and inequality of knowledge. Citing the situation in El Salvador, the book Environmental Issues and Responses specified the ways in which inequality can cause much damage to the environment. Coffee cultivation was seen as one of the primary causes of deforestation in the country. The scenario “needs to be understood in the context of a global market and its demands for cheap coffee production” (Aradau, p.45). The economic inequality between the rich and the poor in El Salvador and the developed versus the underdeveloped countries in the globalized economy can provide justification for the abuse of the environment (Aradau, p.45). Another cause of environmental degradation in El Salvador was the “civil war from 1980 to 1992, during which the army bombed and burnt forests and land in order to destroy the resources used by the