The political reform of China has been rather slow; the reform started almost immediately after the death of Mao; however, it took about three decades to be completed (Gittings, 2006, 164). The efforts towards the restructuring of China’s existing political system –…
It was 1975 when Deng took the control of China – in just two years after Deng started a plan – which lasted for 10 years, i.e. from 1977 up to 1987, and became known as a ‘political structural reform’ (Gittings, 2006, 165); the main target of this scheme has been the extinction of old political ideas – referring mostly to those developed during the governance of China by Mao – and their replacement with new political principles – incorporated within the above scheme. The efforts for China’s political reform had many opponents; one of them has been Hua Guofeng – a successor of Mao, in terms of his political ideas and targets. The resistance of Hua and his supporters towards the political changes promoted by Deng proves the refusal of Chinese politicians to be aligned with the current political trends (Gittings, 2006, 167) and their preference towards the traditional principles of Communism – as expressed through Mao’s political choices. It could be stated that political reform in China was imposed because of the need for an economic reform – which could not be achieved unless the political structure and principles in China were changed – after making this assumption Deng enforced the development of the country’s political structure through a licence granted in 1986 (Gittings, 2006, 197). Certain aspects of the attempted political reform attempted by Deng after 1986 are the following: a) change of the country’s political system to capitalism – even if communism has been the primary political system its structure has been changed showing similar characteristics with political systems that are based on capitalism (Gittings, 2006, 213), b) development of ‘patriotism’ – a concept that was not particular supported during the governance of the country by Mao (Gittings, 2006, 209), c) the increase of the political civilization in China (Gittings, 2006, 13), d) the improvement of the relationship ‘between intellectuals ...
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