Every organization has its own unique culture, which influences its decision-making processes, affects management styles and what everyone determines as success. This paper discusses organizational culture specifically giving a critical evaluation of aspects of organizational culture supportive of creativity and innovation.
Different scholars define organizational culture, also referred to as corporate culture, in different ways. Denison (1990) defines culture as the underlying beliefs, principles and values that act as a foundation for the management system of an organization in addition to the set of management behaviours and practices that both reinforce and typify those basic principles. According to Martin (2002), culture is not only that which an organisation-wide consensus shares but also the meanings’ patterns that connect together these manifestations, sometimes in contradiction, ambiguity and paradox webs, sometimes in bitter conflicts between groups and sometimes in harmony.
Deal and Kennedy (1982) define organizational culture as a set of beliefs, values and patterns of behaviour that form organizations’ core identity and aid in shaping the behaviour of employees. In other words, they record that organizational culture is the dominant values that an organization espouses or a set of values and assumptions that underline the statement: ‘this is how we do things around here’. Straker (2006) also defines culture as a system for distinguishing between out-group and in-group people while Pheysey (1993) defines it as a pattern of ritual, practices, symbols, beliefs and myths that evolved in an organization over time.
According to Schein (2004), culture refers to a pattern of basic assumptions, which has been effective enough to be considered valuable and, consequently, to be taught as the right way to new members to think, feel and perceive in relation to those problems. He adds that a given group develops, invents or discovers these basic