Myelodysplastic syndrome or MDS is a heterogenous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by "a hypercellular or hypocellular marrow with impaired morphology and maturation (dysmyelopoiesis) and peripheral blood cytopenias, resulting from ineffective blood cell…
The main pathophysiology in this condition is that the hematopoietic stem cells do not mature in a proper fashion to healthy erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets resulting in low counts of mature cells and abnormal morphology. Thus there are many immature cells which do not function in a proper manner leading to several complications.
MDS an be primary or secondary. Secondary MDS can occur due to several causes like exposure to radiotherapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy for another cancer, intensive pretreatment for patients with autologous bone marrow transplants, viral infection, genetic predisposition or exposure to chemicals like benzene (Emmanuel and Woermann, 2009, Nguyen, 2009). Exposure to heavy metals like lead and mercury can also result in this condition (National Cancer Institute, 2010).
80-90 percent of cases occur in those who are above 60 years of age (American Cancer Society, 2010). The incidence is men in at least 2 times more than in women (Emmanuel and Woermann, 2009). The condition is found worldwide and affects all races and ethnic groups (Emmanuel and Woermann, 2009).
The condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. More than 30 percent cases of MDS transform in acute leukemia (National Cancer Institute, 2010). Survival following the diagnosis of MDS is variable and dependent on the prognostic factors (Stone, 2009). The survival can occur from months to years (National Cancer Institute, 2010). In children, the course of the disease is more aggressive and the mean survival is less than 10 months (Tilak et al, 2008).
In many patients, MDS is often detected late due to absence of early symptoms. In some others, routine hematological examination may reveal the condition. Those who have advanced disease present with signs and symptoms related to the cytopenias like shortness of breath, pallor, easy fatigability, easy bruising, uncontrollable bleeding, frequent petechiae, fever and frequent infections (National Cancer ...
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Androgen Resistance Syndromes. Clinical syndrome of resistance to androgens (the male hormone) in human beings has been recorded for more than two hundred years. The symptom includes female appearance with both vagina and testes but without uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries (Definition of Androgen 2011).
Many biotechnological experiments can be easily performed and explained using virtual laboratories in an effective manner. With the arrival of internet and computer technology in modern education, limitations like distance and costly instruments are no more a hurdle.
Traditional chemotherapeutic sessions were nonspecific and would be administered to patients regardless of their molecular history. This caused unnecessary harm and led to remission of the disease. However, advancements in histopathology have led to a practice known as molecular profiling.
It is also known as large intestines. Normal colonic glands are simple and tubular, and they possess mucus secreting goblet cells. These tissues also are made up of cells that absorb water from the fecal matter back into the blood and mucus into the lumen of the colon so as to lubricate the fecal matter.
Laboratory Manual and Workbook in Microbiology Applications to Patient Care).
Symptoms of Salmonellosis involve: diarrhea, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting and gastroenteritis. Incubation period of 1-3 days and duration of illness 4-7 days (Josephine A.
(This line is important to show that you have some knowledge of the field - it cannot get simpler)
In simpler words, the duties and responsibilities of a medical laboratory technician revolve around the collection and categorization of blood samples into types and groups.
The initiating pathologic event takes place in the bone marrow that displays features of dysplastic megakaryocyte hyperplasia, proliferation of granulocytic cell lineage, and reticulin and/or collagen fibrosis. The disease presentation clinically happens in one of the three ways, de novo, as primary myelofibrosis (PMF) or preceded by polycythemia vera known as post polycythemia vera (post-PV MF) or heralded by essential thromocythemia (Post-ET MF).
However, the codes were modified in 1992 to six-digit to group industries on a broader classification platform. The first two digits of the code tell about the major group, and the three first digits of the SIC code indicates about