Literature review is used in order to present important normative information on the Arab countries to which this study refers. On the other hand, the literature helps to identify the views of theorists regarding the characteristics and the importance of culture as part of a country’s social framework.
Culture is an important part of a country’s history; in fact, culture reflects the development of a country’s social and political life. Through the decades, the changes on a country’s culture can be explained using the ‘social comparison’ theory; this theory is based on the assumption that every individual is likely ‘to use others to make sense of himself and his social world’ (Guimond, 2006, 15); in accordance with Singerman et al. (2006) ‘culture can be seen as a kind of soft power spreading the image and influence of the state beyond its borders among the peoples of other nations’ (Singerman et al., 2006, 157). At the next level, it is noted that the development of culture across a country – but also across a greater region – can be achieved using a series of different tools/ paths, like ‘media products, educational infrastructure and models of economic development and modernization’ (Singerman et al., 2006, 157).
The culture of Arab countries can be explained by referring primarily to the characteristics of Arab culture as an indication of a specific way of life; indeed, in the study of Moran et al. (2007, 316) it is noted that the term ‘Arab’ is mainly related with a specific way of life – the nomadic way of life; through the decades, the term has been used in order to refer to the culture of people living in Middle East; however, it is made clear that not all people living in this area have the same cultural characteristics mostly because today Arab is considered to be related with