The point of intersection, where the axes meet is called the origin normally labelled as O. A particular point on a two dimensional coordinate system is defined by the x unit first, followed by y unit in the form (x, y). There are four quadrants as shown in below figure. In Quadrant I the values are (x,y), and II:(-x,y), III:(-x,-y) and IV:(x,-y).

The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction determine each point on a plane. It is useful where the relationship between two points is expressed in terms of angle and distance. The fixed point is called the pole, and the ray from the pole with the fixed direction is the polar axis. The distance from the pole is called the radial coordinate or radius, and the angle (measured in anti-clockwise) is the angular coordinate, polar angle, or azimuth. Below diagram (left) shows the polar coordinate system:

A particular point on the polar coordinate system is defined by the distance r first, followed by the angle θ (in degrees or radians) in the form (r, θ). An equivalent Cartesian coordinate system for the polar coordinate system is shown to the right, where point (x, y) is represented by (.

Latitude (horizontal line also referred as parallel) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator. Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles (111 km) apart. Degrees latitude are numbered from 0° to 90° north and south. Zero degree is the equator, the imaginary line that divides our planet into the northern and southern hemispheres. 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.

Longitude (vertical line also referred as meridians) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or
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