The proto-typical qualitative study is the ethnography which helps the reader understands the definitions of the situation of those studies” (Aukerman, pp. 1, 2010).
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the various methods and techniques of research. The research methods for both kinds of researches have their limitations and strengths. Quantitative research methods are usually in relation with experimental methodologies involving statistical analysis. On the other hand, qualitative research methodologies facilitate researchers in assessing and analyzing social and cultural phenomena.
There are many methods available for the collection of qualitative data, each with its own strengths and limitations. Researchers make choices about research methods depending on a number of factors, such as level (e.g., social or community or personal), availability of time, financial resource availability, and cultural or situational suitability (e.g., type of interaction, privacy requirements, and literacy). All kinds of qualitative research together with ethnography are under characterization by their commitment to learn and understand the viewpoints of others. They focus on behaviors and try to derive meanings from their observations (Schensul, pp. 1-3, 2008). In case of qualitative research, the commonly used methods include observations, interviews, focused group discussion and ethnographic survey.
Observation is essential to good qualitative research. This method is very useful for the collection of various sorts of behavioral or interactional data. The collection of observational data from open-ended (a search for pattern) to closed and coded (a search for pattern confirmation) ranges. The observations can be in the form of recording the behaviors and patterns as participant observer or more focused systematic and structured forms of observation. Good qualitative researchers usually employ