related to the way work was distributed, planning and organising work, types of skills possessed by employees, measuring and rewarding performance, standardization of best suitable methods of working and defining the role of each employee, group, function and/or unit.
Subsequently, the Managerial Grid was proposed by Blake and Mouton (1964/1971) in which the interplay of three organisational universals, i.e. people, production and hierarchy, is studied through a grid depicting different ways how managers are concerned about production and people and their impact on each other. A transition of management perception towards human relations begun with Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo, which proved that variations in external environment impacted performance of the workers; variations in pay in the form of performance incentives motivated workers to perform better; increased social interactions that occurred between work motivated workers in turn leading to higher productivity (Dixon, 2003). These theories and others explain how different perspectives, i.e. planning and organising work, organisational structure and systems, and human relations, have an impact on effective management, contrary to my approach which has more often been authoritative and less inclined towards human relations.
The most essential requirement for effective management is ‘leadership.’ For a manager to be successful he/she should exemplify qualities of a leader; however, a person may not be in a managerial position to emerge as a leader. Hence, leadership qualities such as the ability to influence, create a vision, and ability for doing the right things help a manager to become more effective. For instance, Tripathi (2008) sums up leadership as characterized by existence of followers; involving a community of interests between leader and the followers; unequal distribution of authority; and guiding followers towards the right direction. However, management focuses on