According to Godin (1993), smokers always and in almost all fields perform poorly as compared to non-smokers since they tend to consume more sick days as compared to the latter. Further, it is so because as Richter, D. (2008) puts it, smoking is pleasant and at times appears…
Richter’s assertions confirm Godin’s argument that if at all an individual cumulate the number of hours/minutes spend while smoking and then compare with the level of output, then the relationship will not be proportional, rather lopsided. To determine the reliability and validity of the Richter’s and Godin’s assertions, data was collected and analyzed. The data variables were years of schooling, cigarettes smoked per day, years of smoking and annual income. The results from the collected data follow below;
From the above multiple regression model with years of schooling as the dependent variable and years of smoking, annual income ($) and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the regression equation can be formulated as shown below;
(Where Y = Number of smoking years, I = annual income and C = cigarettes smoked per day). From equation 1, a unit increase in years of smoking means that the person spend few year in school by a factor of 0.029 holding annual income and cigarettes smoked per day constant (controlling for annual income and cigarettes smoked per day constant). Further, an increase in cigarettes smoked per day by one cigarette means that the person spend few year in school by a factor of 0.016 holding annual income and years of smoking constant (controlling for annual income and years of smoking). The effect of years of schooling on the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years is significant at 5% level of significance [t = -4.963, p ...
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