Nevertheless, Maquiladora industrial activities have received criticism for their negative impacts on the environment and the criticism is based on impacts from population pressure, traffic and industrial activities (Dietz et al 281). For instance, the water shortage on both sides of the U.S. and Mexico borders are associated with inadequate management of natural resources such as the location of industries as well as the rapid population growth in the region (Edward & Andrew 329). Most researchers concur that some measures not to be taken to curb the environmental degradation that is occurring along this border region industrial zones.
Despite these criticisms, the Maquiladoras industries are believed to perform better than non-maquiladoras industries in relation to direct environmental externalities. This is evidenced by the structure of the sector-presence of transforming intermediate goods rather than using primary materials (EPA 89). In addition, these border region industrial zones have offered employment and economic opportunities to groups that were previously marginalized by the Latin American economic system; in some cases this has even resulted in the shifting of gender roles within these communities. However, industrial development as a desired generator of prosperity in terms of job creation and tax revenues often generate negative impacts on the environmental goods and services such as water and assimilation of emissions respectively (Hawken 169).
This essay considers both the economic impact the maquiladora communities have created, as well as the environmental degradation that is in great part proportional to this economic stimulation. Rather than prognosticate on the relative moral claims of environmentalists, or the argue towards the need for capitalist expansion within Mexico; through the examination of a number of competing perspectives the essay presents a pragmatic means by