The governments had been undertaking construction and maintenance of roads throughout the history of the mankind. Due to shrinkage in plan expenditure on account of ever increasing pressure on non plan expenditure, the governments have been forced to find ways and means for…
has resulted in resistance from the public, for further increase in taxes.
Therefore the governments have considered various alternatives to meet this infrastructure cost, since the economic development of the country hinges on the development of the infrastructure. There are various attributes to road transportation such as distance in traveling, size and weights of the vehicles and the loads the vehicle carry, parking, peak hour timings, types of fuel used, traffic level, etc. Developments in technology in the meantime, made the measurement of the usage with reference to various attributes, easier. The equipments made available to the transport development authorities, research in transport and logistics sector, development of Global Positioning System (GPS),use wireless data technology (GPRS), etc. have refined the system of measurement. This gave way to a new system to charge based on the usage of highways by various categories of the vehicles. The charges based on distances traveled are in vogue in many countries, as it is felt more relevant, easier to implement and control. Establishment of toll gates and installation of new equipments and systems at the convenient entry points is also a part of the development.
A comprehensive study has been made with reference to levy of charges, the purpose of levy, its justifications and implications. It is also to study the real intention of the government in introducing congestion area charging, and the efficacy of the scheme in addressing the needs or problems of the society, and to recommend the steps required to be taken to achieve the goal or objective.
Road use results in damage of the roads, congestions on account of traffic, pollution on account of emissions and accidents apart from normal wear and tear associated with the climatic conditions such as snow and rains. Pricing of road is a complex phenomenon. Every form of ...
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(Road User Charging Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 Words)
“Road User Charging Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/397913-road-user-charging.
Indeed, the relationship between transportation and economic development cannot be understated, knowing that transportation is very instrumental in all facets of the comprehensive economic progression cycle (Peirce and Curtis, 2008). Through an effective transport system, movement of logistics, services, goods, resources and people is made possible to ignite the economic and business paradigm for growth.
Similarly, this paper will evaluate which among the two aforementioned approaches is more political.
City planners together with the appropriate government agency provides road networks whether in existence or under construction which envision to spur progress, stability and self reliance in society, taking into consideration demography, socio-economic factors, infrastructure and utilities, local administration and land use among others.
The author states that marginal cost pricing in the London road sector poses public and political acceptability issues, linked sometimes to concerns about driver equity. The effort to build a way out of the congestion problem has not proved successful largely because once constructed there has been limited effort to ensure the new capacity.
Over the recent past, economic growth in many parts of the world has given rise to many accompanying problems, chief among them being congestion (Banister D, 2003). This has been occasioned by the need to travel among the citizenry in their endeavor to perform their daily chores.
This charge was implemented to curb the road and traffic congestion by charging the amount of externality directly to vehicle who create these externalities. As a sign of traffic congestion in Central London, recent survey show that average speed of Vehicles on the main road in Central London has dropped from 14 mph to around 9 mph.
shall briefly elaborate in this paper – but is also at this point in time neither feasible nor acceptable, as a recent survey of public opinion in the U.K. showed (RAC, 2004, p. 9).
We begin with a brief discussion of transport supply and demand to explain how road space and
that one or other of the grounds mentioned in Regulation 13 (3) are satisfied, he may make representations to that effect to the charging authority who served the penalty charge notice on him.
(ii) the person hiring it had signed a statement of liability acknowledging his
This user module will be helpful to get access and measure the strengths and weaknesses of one person. In this paper I will also talk about the user modeling implementation and working.
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free flow capacity of a road link or a junction, and any additional motor vehicle causes delays to others, and it is costly in terms of fuel cost, time taken and carbon emission to the air, which causes pollution.
Workplace parking charges has seen a specific car space tax
In addition, this can be done by enhancing the usability of the website so that the users can easily utilize the functionalities and features of the website. In this regards, the paper contains a description and purpose of website
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
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