Coronary heart disease (CHD), otherwise known as the coronary artery disease (CAD), is defined as the narrowing of minute blood vessel supplying the heart with blood and oxygen (Kang, 2010). In Great Britain, CHD is considered to be the second most reported longstanding illness…
A health survey done in England in 2006 suggests that the prevalence of CHD in men was 6.5 percent and in women was only 4 percent; however, these rates are increasing with age (British Heart Foundation Statistics Website, 2010). In Scotland, the prevalence of CHD is much higher with percentage rate of 4.6 than the 4.3 percent reported cases in Wales and 3.5 percent in England (British Heart Foundation Statistics Website, 2010). From the aforementioned data, it can be observed that the variation of prevalence of CHD is wide within the United Kingdom. On the other hand, the prevalence of CHD in England alone ranges from 2.3 percent in London to 4.9 in North East of England. In Scotland only, the prevalence rate of CHD is higher compared to that in England where 3.9 percent cases were observed in Lothian and Orkney and 8.4 percent in Shetland (British Heart Foundation Statistics Website, 2010). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007) noted that death rate from CHD in the UK is more than 103,000 deaths per year and considered to be one of the highest in Europe, and this rate varies with age, gender, socio – economic status, ethnicity and geographic location in the UK.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2007) and the British Heart Foundation (2008) noted that various types of aetiology with a number of potentially modifiable risk factors are identified with cardiovascular diseases. These are:
Among the aforementioned risk factors of acquiring CHD and peripheral vascular disease, smoking is believed to be the principal risk factor causing it. During the increasing myocardial demand, smoking have shown to be associated with impaired coronary blood flow responses, and in patients having coronary artery diseases, smoking is noted to contribute to myocardial ischemia.
Libby and Theroux (2005) and Leon 2009 stated that atherogenesis, which is considered to be the most important cause and the underlying foundation of coronary heart ...
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This study is being undertaken in order to establish a clear and comprehensive understanding of CHD based on nursing management. Coronary heart diseases are currently one of the major sources of mortality and morbidity. The management of this disease is largely based on the actions of the patient and the interventions of the medical health professionals.
Hypercholesterolemia in Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease
Figure 1: Symptoms of CHD
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition in which the lumen of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart) are narrowed down.
This narrowing or blockage is known as coronary heart disease (CHD). The arteries function abnormally due to restricted blood flow caused by the obstruction. The heart is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, and the patient may suffer from chest pains. Total obstruction may deprive the heart muscles of energy completely resulting in a heart attack.
These, when develop in the coronary arteries result in reduction in the luminal blood flow through these arteries (Williams, et al., 2002). Acute or relative reduction in blood flow through these arteries responsible for blood supply for the cardiac muscles would result in absolute or relative deficiency of oxygen and metabolites in the areas supplied by these arteries.
The idea of this research emerged from the author’s interest and fascination in how the social determinants of the disease in Merced County compared to California and the US. This research aims to evaluate and present a comparison of health outcomes related to the problem and the ongoing interventions or programs addressing this health condition in Merced County.
One of the methods of screening is blood pressure, the main purpose of this method is to assist in the detection of risk factors in the early stages before they develop to be a cardiovascular disease (Hall & Lorenc, 2010). This is among the most
Opening up new stores to other countries where the three countries have not exploited the market. Sell quality products and designed to the different market segments.
Enhancing the online platform for easy navigation by consumers.
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