Thus to replenish and balance the cellular functions, a mechanism is required which will be accurate and generate a number of qualitatively identical cells in a short period of time. This function is performed by Mitosis. Meiosis is the process where the genetic material is halved which is essential so that doubling of genetic material does not take place at every forthcoming generation. Thus Mitosis and Meiosis are both essentially similar in the respect that both are cell division processes and both occur in eukaryotes. The only difference is the end uses for which the cells are produced are different; hence the mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis differ from each other in a few respects. Thus mitosis is operational in different instances in division of somatic cells (liver, embryo development but not the sex cells, shoot and root division). It is also particularly important in wound healing and replenishing red blood lymphocytes. Meiosis occurs only in the sex cells, to form haploid male and female gametes so that the diploid genome is restored in the offspring. It also serves as the source of recombination and variation.
Mitosis comprises of standard steps of Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Interphase is the process where cell prepares material for cell division. In this phase chromosomes are unseen, but chromatin granules are seen clearly.(Lehninger, 2008) In the Prophase in mitosis, four chromatids combine to form a pair of chromosomes which are joined by a centromere. Comparitively in Meiosis Prophase I, four chromosomes instead of chromatids combine to form two tetrads. The chromosomes in the tetrad cross over each other, allowing them to exchange genetic material. In the Metaphase in Mitosis, the two chromosomes line up in the center and split up into four chromatids which move to both of the poles. In Parallel, in meiosis the two tetrads line up in the center and split up into four chromosomes which go to both