Anxiety, fear and other intense emotions which are a part of stress cause exaggerated production of adrenaline which causes restriction of blood flow to the uterine area causing deprivation of adequate oxygen to the fetus. Thus stress can lead to premature delivery and its consequences. Stress in pregnancy also have long-term consequences like behavioural problems in childhood (Santrock, 2004).
3. The pregnant woman must undergo ultrasound examination for fetal anomalies between 18- 20 weeks of gestation. At this point of time, all organs are developed and it becomes easier to detect any obvious congenital anomalies through ultrasound at this stage.
According to ecological theory, several biological and environmental factors affect the growth of the fetus and the child (Santrock, 2004). Thus a normal nutrition and a stress-free environment is essential for normal development of the fetus.
1. The child must be breast fed as much as possible. According to Freuds theory of development, infants are in the oral stage of development and derive gratification from sucking (Santrock, 2004). Derivation of such pleasure at this stage allows them to have satisfaction and facilitates growth and development.
2. The mother should shower affection on the child and not do any thing to harm the child. According to Eriksons first psychosocial stage, trust is developed at this stage and the infant sets stage for expectation that the world is a pleasant and goof place to live. the expectation which begins at this stage lasts life long.
3. The mother should allow the child to touch, feel and explore various things on his/her own. According to Pigets cognitive developmental theory, the first stage is the stage of sensorimotor stage during which time the infant develops and understanding of the world through coordination of various sensory experiences through various physical actions (Santrock,