Biology does interact with sociological forces that take one to the path of crime. If this concept is perfectly understood, proper steps for effective treatment to offenders can be taken. Genetic variations are conducive to increased violence risk. To be precise men with an extra Y chromosome have a higher propensity for violence—this just one of the findings.
Roger Hopkins Burke, in his book “An introduction to Criminological Theory,” writes, “Biological positivism behaviour can be explained by a genetic susceptibility triggered by environmental factors.”(p.63) He has discussed the issue in detail in a separate chapter on “Biological Positivism.”(p .55-72) He further adds that “Biological positivism suggests a direct link between testosterone and aggression.”(p.67)
Adoption and twin studies also relate to biological influences on maladaptive behaviour. The other influencing factors are alcohol syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder and birth defects. These conditions interact with sociological factors and thus add to the risks of criminal behaviour. The significant factor of criminality is found to be the effects of alcohol. Hormones have a telling effect on the aggression of an individual. Hormonal imbalance results in increased aggression. Childhood trauma and criminal behaviour have close links. With more or less unanimity about the influence of biology on criminal behaviour, it is time to look at the treatment modules of such criminals. A detailed study of biology, genetics and psychology is required to determine treatment of a particular criminal, for both mental health and correctional professionals. “Biological Positivism reduction in offending behaviors is seen as possible by the use of treatment programmes.”(p.71)
The opposing viewpoints whether genetics plays the most important role or environmental factors are