adcasting system”, which allowed private broadcasters to operate side by side and with the same access and privileges as the public broadcasting corporations (Inter Nationes, 1996).
Admittedly, the dual broadcasting system had best served the interests of the viewers and listeners in Europe for the last 20 years. Wagner described the European broadcasting system as reliant on two pillars, namely public broadcasting on the one hand, and commercial broadcasting on the other hand (1999). In Germany, for instance, commercial broadcasters are known more for provocative and commercial programming such as reality shows, and public broadcasters are thought to offer a more diverse choice of news, current affairs, and cultural programs (Open Society Institute, 2005). Rather than compete with one another, the two parts complement and balance each other, although at one time public broadcasting corporations made it difficult for commercial broadcasters to operate, and after liberalization commercial broadcasters seek to marginalize public broadcasters by raising issues about their public or mixed funding. The qualification of public funding as state aid should be rethought, since programme autonomy and funding stability as basic principles for public broadcasting, as upheld by legislators and courts (Wagner, 1999). There should be a happy equilibrium sought between open market competition and public service imperatives, between politics and economic interests as they are served by the media (Commission Staff, 2007).
2. Critically discuss the Broadcasting Without Frontiers Directive and indicate how this impacts one European country of your choice. You can reflect on how and why some countries maintain more strict regulations than are necessary to comply with the Directive.
The Television Without Frontiers Directive (TVWFD) is generally regarded as the cornerstone document on which European audiovisual policy is built, the general purpose of which is to guarantee that