To guard against this, concrete bored piles were installed at the cliff-facing side of the road. This is then tied to anchor blocks with pullout being prevented by tension piles.
A developed unprotected coastline is subjected to coastal retreat and landslide instability. The combined action of cliff erosion and collapse together with the flow of groundwater from high levels to the sea is triggering landslide reactivation. Coastal protection is limited by environmental sensitivity of the site. There are two requirements for the project: to arrest recession of the cliffs and reactivation of the landslide system and to improve the stability of the coastal through an intensive drainage system. For the first requirement, a rock armor revetment was chosen. For the second problem, a deep pumped well solution using siphon and electro-pneumatic systems.
The project involves a developed coastal town threatened by existing coastal defense, landslide reactivation and coastal recession. Coastal erosion by wave action, earth slippage due to rainfall & groundwater, inappropriate excavation and construction and climate change have ultimately resulted to the reactivation of landslide complexes. Due to the severe consequences if the problem was left unchecked, an extensive program of land stabilization and foreshore works was undertaken. Different strategies were used including reinforced slope buttresses, soil nails, pile grids, slope regarding, drains, seawall improvements and beach replenishment.
A developed coastal town is experiencing deterioration of coastal defenses with previously installed stabilization measures such as cut-off drain have all but failed. Nevertheless, the cliff top assets are not foreseen to be affected for several years making coastal protection measures not warranted for the time being. Only monitoring and investigations of the ground and rainfall are the actions being undertaken.