Managing diversity properly leads to healthy organization of these differences which results in a dynamic milieu where every individual is appreciated and cherished which makes him employ his abilities successfully to accomplish the societal objectives in general and organizational goals in particular. On the other hand, mismanagement of diversity may lead to violence, aggression and revulsion among people.
On individual level, diversity helps one to come out of challenging situations by being flexible to troubles. If we talk about business world in United States which is a diverse nation, people of different races and ethnic background are working actively because of the involvement of more women and immigrants. This diversity is necessary for staying in competition with the outer world and ensuring higher productivity.
Characteristics that come under the umbrella term of diversity, also sometimes called dimensions of diversity, include age, race, ethnicity, gender, culture, heritage, cognitive approach, beliefs, mental or physical abnormality, socio-economic and educational background, customs and traditions, norms and values, geographical status, religion, art, language, nuptial and family status, political following, sexual orientation, food habits, and etcetera. Every individual is unique but belongs to an identity group at the same time that identifies him. Some of the characteristics are chosen by the individual himself (such as religious beliefs, political affiliation and marital status) while some are given to him by nature or society (such as language, race and ethnicity).
Sweetman (2004, p. 2) asserts that diversity can be understood in two dimensions, that is, primary and secondary diversity. He states that primary diversity comprises of those characteristics that an individual cannot alter for himself, such as, “sex, race or ethnicity, age, physical abilities and qualities, and